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Back door

A feature or defect of a computer system that allows access to data by bypassing normal security measures.


In information technology, a backup, or data backup is a copy of computer data taken and stored elsewhere so that it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.


An institution offering certain financial services, such as the safekeeping of money, conversion of domestic into and from foreign currencies, lending of money at interest, and acceptance of bills of exchange.

Big data

Large amounts of structured and unstructured data that exceeds the ability of commonly used software tools to capture, manage and process. Big data requires techniques and technologies with new forms of integration to reveal insights from datasets that are diverse, complex, and of a massive scale.


Measurable physical characteristics used to identify or verify an individual.


A digital currency and payment system underpinned by blockchain technology. Bitcoins can be used for online purchases, or converted into traditional currency.

Black hat

A person that hacks for personal gain and/or who engages in illicit and unsanctioned hacking activities.


Blackmail is an act of coercion using the threat of revealing or publicising either substantially true or false information about a person or people unless certain demands are met. It is often damaging information and may be revealed to family members or associates rather than to the general public.


A distributed database that maintains a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, secured from tampering and revision. Each block contains a timestamp and a link to a previous block. By design, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data—once recorded, the data in a block cannot be altered retroactively.


A list of entities that are not considered trustworthy and are blocked or denied access.


BlueBorne is a type of security vulnerability by which hackers can leverage Bluetooth connections to penetrate and take complete control over targeted devices. BlueBorne affects ordinary computers, mobile phones, smart cars and wearable gadgets.


BlueKeep is a vulnerability in the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) that can affect the Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows XP, Server 2003 and Server 2008 operating systems.


Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard used for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances using short-wavelength UHF radio waves.

Bogus request

Fake request


A program that performs automated tasks. In a cyber security context, a malware-infected computer that carries out tasks set by someone other than the device's legitimate user.


A collection of computers infected by bots, remotely controlled by an actor to conduct malicious activities without the user's knowledge, such as to send spam, spread malware, conduct denial of service activities or steal data.

Breach (data)

When data is lost or subjected to unauthorised access, modification, disclosure, or other misuse or interference. Also referred to as a ‘Data Spill’.

Breach (security)

An incident that results in unauthorised access of data, applications, services, networks and/or devices by bypassing their underlying security mechanisms.

Bring Your Own Device

An organisational policy that allows employees to use their own personal devices for work purposes. These devices connect to and utilise the organisations’ network, data and resources.


Broadband is a wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types. In the context of internet access, Broadband is used to mean any high speed internet access that is always on.


Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum.


A software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the world wide web.

Browser hijacking

Occurs when your browser settings are changed without your knowledge or consent. Your browser may persistently redirect to malicious or other unwanted websites.

Browsing history

The list of web pages a user has visited recently - and associated data such as page title and time of visit - which is recorded by web browser software as standard for a certain period of time.

Brute force

A typically unsophisticated and exhaustive process to determine a cryptographic key or password that proceeds by systematically trying all alternatives until it discovers the correct one.


A flaw or error in a software program.

Business continuity

Business continuity encompasses a loosely defined set of planning, preparatory and related activities which are intended to ensure that an organisation's critical business functions will either continue to operate despite serious incidents or disasters that might otherwise have interrupted them, or will be recovered to an operational state within a reasonably short period.

Business email compromise

Business email compromise attacks are a form of cybercrime which use email fraud to attack business, government and non-profit organisations to achieve a specific outcome which negatively impacts the target organisation.

Business scams

A dishonest scheme that aims to get money, or something else of value from businesses.

Buying online

A form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the internet using a web browser.


Bring Your Own Device