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Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Z

S

S/MIME

Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension

Safari

A web browser developed by Apple that is the default browser in Apple devices.

Safer Internet Day

A worldwide event led by the Office of the eSafety Commissioner, of which the Australian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC) is a partner.

Samsung

A South Korean multinational electronics company. Samsung produces LCD and LED panels, mobile phones, memory chips, NAND flash memory, solid state drives, televisions, digital cinema screens and laptops.

Sandbox

A virtual space in which new, untrusted or untested software or coding can be run safely without risking harm to the hosting computer.

SCADA

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

Scam

A fraudulent scheme performed by a dishonest or deceitful individual, group or company in an attempt to obtain money or something else of value.

Scam emails

An email that intentionally deceives for personal gain or to damage another individual.

Scammer

A person who commits fraud or participates in a dishonest scheme.

ScamWatch

An Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) service that provides information to consumers and small businesses about how to recognise, avoid and report scams.

SCEC

Security Construction and Equipment Committee

Script (malware)

A type of malware written using a scripting language. Common forms of scripting language include JavaScript, HTML, Visual Basic Script, PowerShell, Perl, Python and Shell Scripting.

Script kiddie

A derisive term used to describe an unskilled individual that uses existing computer scripts or programs to hack computers, networks or websites, lacking the expertise to write their own.

Search engine optimisation (SEO)

The process of increasing website traffic by increasing the visibility or ranking of a website or a web page to users of a search engine.

Secondary targeting

The people who are the second most likely to purchase products and services, and are thus targeted for marketing purposes.

Seconded foreign national

A representative of a foreign government on exchange or long-term posting.

SECRET area

An area that has been authorised to process, store or communicate SECRET information. Such areas are not necessarily tied to a specific level of security zone.

Secure shell

A network protocol that can be used to securely log into, execute commands on, and transfer files between remote workstations and servers.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

A networking protocol designed for securing connections between web clients and web servers over an insecure network, such as the internet.

Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (S/MIME)

A protocol which allows the encryption and signing of email messages.

Secured space

An area certified to the physical security requirements for a Zone 2 to Zone 5 area, as defined in the Australian Government Protective Security Policy Framework (PSPF),  to allow for the processing or storage of sensitive or classified information.

Security assessment

An activity undertaken to assess security controls for a system and its environment to determine if they have been implemented correctly and are operating as intended.

Security association

A collection of connection-specific parameters containing information about a one-way connection in Internet Protocol security (IPsec) that is required for each protocol used.

Security association lifetime

The duration security association information is valid for.

Security breach

An act that leads to damage of a system or unauthorised access to the system.

Security Configuration Guide

Small Business Guide Security Configuration Guide

Security Construction and Equipment Committee (SCEC)

An Australian Government interdepartmental committee responsible for the evaluation and endorsement of security equipment and services. The committee is chaired by the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO).

Security domain

A system or collection of systems operating under a consistent security policy that defines the classification, releasability and special handling caveats for information processed within the domain.

Security flaws

A weakness in a system that gives a threat agent the opportunity to mount an attack.

Security hardening

The process of securing a system by reducing its surface of vulnerability.

Security posture

The level of security risk to which a system is exposed. A system with a strong security posture is exposed to a low level of security risk while a system with a weak security posture is exposed to a high level of security risk.

Security risk

Any event that could result in the compromise, loss of integrity or unavailability of information or resources, or deliberate harm to people measured in terms of its likelihood and consequences.

Security risk appetite

Statements that communicate the expectations of an organisation’s senior management about the organisation’s security risk tolerance. These criteria help an organisation identify security risks and prepare appropriate treatments and provide a benchmark against which the success of mitigations can be measured.

Security risk management

The process of identifying, assessing and taking steps to reduce security risks to an acceptable level.

Security target

An artefact of Common Criteria evaluations that specifies conformance claims, threats and assumptions, security objectives, and security requirements for an evaluated product.

Security tips

Information on how to be secure online.

Security updates

Updates to the security on your system.

Security vulnerability

A weakness in a system’s security requirements, design, implementation or operation that could be accidentally triggered or intentionally exploited and result in a violation of the system’s security policy.

SEG

Security Equipment Guide

Self-healing

Any device or system that has the ability to perceive that it is not operating correctly and to make the necessary adjustments to restore itself to normal operation.

Selling online

The act or process of selling goods, products or services online via an internet or mobile app, auction site, online classified advertisement, online store, social networking, social media or web shop.

Sender Policy Framework (SPF)

An email authentication method designed to detect forged sender addresses during the delivery of email.

SEO

Search Engine Optimisation

Server

A computer that provides services to users or other systems. For example, a file server, email server or database server.

Service providers

A company which allows its subscribers access to the internet.

Service Set Identifier (SSID)

The name given to identify a particular Wi-Fi network. The SSID is broadcast by the wireless access point (wireless router) and can be detected by other wireless-enabled devices in range of the wireless access point (WAP). In some cases, SSIDs are hidden, making them invisible to Wi-Fi clients.

Sextortion

A form of blackmail in which sexual information or images are used to extort money or sexual favours from the victim in return for not releasing the information or images publicly.

SHA-1

Secure Hashing Algorithm 1

SHA-2

Secure Hashing Algorithm 2

Shared government facility

A facility where the facility and personnel are cleared at different levels.

Shared non-government facility

A facility where the facility is shared by government organisations and non-government organisations.

Shell

The program that gives your commands to your computer's operating system.

Short Message Service (SMS)

A text messaging service component of most telephone, internet and mobile device systems. It uses standardised communication protocols to enable mobile devices to exchange short text messages.

Signature

A distinct pattern in network traffic that can be identified to a specific tool or exploit. Signatures are used by security software to determine if a file has been previously determined to be malicious or not.

SIP

Session Initiation Protocol

Skimming

The theft of credit card information using card readers, or skimmers, to record and store victims' data.

Skype

A telecommunications application that specialises in providing video chat and voice calls between devices over the internet.

SLAAC

Stateless Address Autoconfiguration

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

A legally independent company with less than a certain number of employees or financial turnover. The Australian Taxation Office defines Australian SMEs as having less than $250 million turnover.

Small Business Guide

An Australian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC) publication series for small businesses on cyber security.

Smart appliances

Appliances that are able to connect to the internet via Wi-Fi or another protocol such as the Zigbee specification and can be accessed and controlled remotely from any internet-connected computer or mobile device.

Smart devices

An electronic device, generally connected to other devices or networks via different wireless protocols such as Bluetooth, Zigbee, NFC, Wi-Fi, LiFi, 3G, etc, that can operate to some extent interactively and autonomously.

Smart vehicles

Vehicles equipped with system driven forms of artificial intelligence.

Smartphone

A handheld electronic device that provides connection to a cellular network. Smartphones allow people to make phone calls, send text messages and access the internet.

SME

Subject Matter Expert, Small and Medium Enterprises

SMS

Short Message Service

SMS scam

A fraudulent text message sent by a deceitful or dishonest person in order to obtain money or something else of value.

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol

SNORT

A free open source network intrusion detection system and intrusion prevention system created by Sourcefire and now developed by Cisco.

Social engineering

The methods used to manipulate people into carrying out specific actions, or divulging information.

Social media

Websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking.

Social media scams

An act of deception and fraud committed through social media websites or applications.

SOE

Standard Operating Environment

Softphone

An application that allows a workstation to act as a phone using a built-in or externally-connected microphone and speaker.

Software

A collection of data or instructions that tell a computer how to work.

Software component

An element of a system such as a database, operating system, network or web application.

Software update

A download for an application, operating system or software suite that provides fixes for features that aren't working as intended or adds minor software enhancements and compatibility.

Software vulnerabilities

Bugs in software. Bugs are coding errors that cause the system to make or allow an unwanted action.

Solid state drive

Non-volatile media that uses flash memory media to retain its information when power is removed and, unlike non-volatile magnetic media, contains no moving parts.

SP

Special Publication

Spam

Unsolicited electronic messages, especially containing advertising, indiscriminately transmitted to a large number of people.

Spear phishing

A form of phishing that targets a specific person or group.

SPF

Sender Policy Framework

Split tunnelling

Functionality that allows personnel to access both public network infrastructure and a Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection at the same time, such as an organisation’s system and the internet.

Splunk

An American multinational corporation that produces software for searching, monitoring and analysing machine-generated data via a web-style interface.

Spoof

A type of attack where a message is made to look like it comes from a trusted source. For example, an email that looks like it comes from a legitimate business, but is actually trying to spread malware.

Spot the scam

An event to teach people how to navigate around the internet and be able to differentiate legitimate websites and individuals from scammers.

Spyware

A program that collects information on the user’s activities without their consent. Spyware may be installed on a system illegitimately, or as a part of other software without the user’s knowledge.

SQL

Structured Query Language

SQL injection

Exploitation of a vulnerability in a database application that does not properly validate or encode user input, allowing the manipulation, exfiltration or deletion of data.

SSD

Solid State Drive

SSH

Secure Shell

SSID

Service Set Identifier

SSL

Secure Sockets Layer

Standard operating environment (SOE)

A standardised build of an operating system and associated software that can be used for servers, workstations, laptops and mobile devices.

Standard operating procedure (SOP)

Instructions for following a defined set of activities in a specific manner. For example, an approved data transfer process.

Standard user

A user who can, with their normal privileges, make only limited changes to a system and generally cannot bypass security measures.

State-sponsored actor

A private actor that conducts activity on behalf of a state, for example, a contracted hacker or company.

Staying safe

Protecting yourself from any danger.

Step-by-Step Guide

Guides developed by the Australian Cyber Security Centre to help individuals stay secure online.

Story

A depiction of an event through people, place, and plot and brings emotional context into the portrayal of what happened.

Strong passwords

A term used to describe an effective password (or passphrase) that is difficult to break.

Structured Query Language (SQL)

A special-purpose programming language designed for managing data held in a relational database management system.

Sub-contractors

An individual or a business that signs a contract to perform part or all of the obligations of another's contract.

Subject matter expert (SME)

A person who is an authority in a particular area or topic. In computer science, also called a domain expert.

Submarine cables

A cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of sea and ocean.

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)

A control system architecture comprising computers, networked data communications and graphical user interfaces for high-level process supervisory management. It also comprises other peripheral devices like programmable logic controllers and discrete proportional-integral-derivative controllers used to interface with process plant or machinery.

Supply chain

A system of organisations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in supplying a product or service to a consumer.

Surfing

The act of browsing the internet by going from one web page to another web page using hyperlinks in a web browser.

Survey

An online survey is a questionnaire that the target audience can complete over the internet. Online surveys are usually created as web forms with a database to store the answers and statistical software to provide analytics.

Suspicious email

An email that is potentially malicious.

Suspicious message

A message that is potentially malicious.

Suspicious video

A video that is potentially malicious.

Symantec

A leading software company in internet security technology.

System

A related set of hardware and software used for the processing, storage or communication of information and the governance framework in which it operates.

System administration

System administration refers to the management of one or more hardware and software systems. Also referred to as 'sys admin'.

System classification

The classification of a system is the highest classification of information which the system is authorised to store, process or communicate.

System of National Significance

Critical infrastructure or essential service

System owner

The executive responsible for a system.

System security plan

A document that describes a system and its associated security controls.