Introduction The Australian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC), the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission (ACIC) and the Australian Federal Police (AFP), amongst a number of other Australian Government organisations, work together to protect all Australians from cyber security threats and cybercriminals. Our shared mission is to make Australia the safest place to connect online. The ACSC Annual Cyber Threat Report July 2019 to June 2020 (PDF) has been developed by the ACSC, ACIC and AFP, and is the first unclassified annual report since the ACSC became part of the Australian Signals Directorate (ASD) in July 2018. By bringing together cyber security capabilities from across the Australian Government, the ACSC works to improve cyber security and cyber resilience for the Australian community. This report delivers key information identified by the ACSC on known and emerging cyber security and cybercrime threats impacting different sectors of the Australian economy between July 2019 and June 2020. Cyber security is everyone’s responsibility, and this report includes mitigation advice all Australian individuals and organisations can implement, to reduce the likelihood and prevent the impact of malicious cyber activity.