C2 or C&C

Command and control


Content Advisory Group


A device for recording visual images in the form of photographs, film or video signals.

Car hacking

The manipulation of the code in a car's electronic control unit to exploit a vulnerability and gain control of other electronic control units in the vehicle.

Case study

A factual representation of what happened along with some analysis that provides insights and advice for the future.


Internet predators who create fake online identities to lure people into emotional or romantic relationships for personal or financial gain.


A marking that indicates that the data has special requirements in addition to those indicated by its classification. This term covers codewords, source codewords, releasability indicators and special-handling caveats.


Common Criteria Recognition Arrangement


Content delivery network


Cross Domain Solution

Central processing unit (CPU)

The electronic circuitry within a computer that executes instructions that make up a computer program. The central processing unit performs basic arithmetic, logic, control and input/output operations specified by the instructions in the program.


Chief Executive Officer

CERT Australia

CERT Australia is the national computer emergency response team. CERT Australia provides advice and support on cyber threats and vulnerabilities to the owners and operators of Australia's critical infrastructure and other systems of national interest. It is an office within the ACSC.


A secure certificate, is a file installed on a secure web server that identifies a website. This digital certificate establishes the identity and authenticity of the company or merchant so that online shoppers can trust that the website is secure and reliable.

Certification report

An artefact of Common Criteria evaluations that outlines the outcomes of a product’s evaluation.


Commercial Grade Cryptographic Equipment


A multinational provider of software and combined hardware and software products for IT security, including network security, endpoint security, cloud security, mobile security, data security and security management.

Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

The highest-ranking executive in a company, whose primary responsibilities include making major corporate decisions, managing the overall operations and resources of a company, acting as the main point of communication between the board of directors and corporate operations, and being the public face of the company.

Chief Information Security Officer

A senior executive who is responsible for coordinating communication between security and business functions as well as overseeing the application of controls and associated security risk management processes.


Cyber Hygiene Improvement Program


A very popular web browser by Google that was introduced for Windows in 2008 and for the Mac and Linux in 2009.


A Linux kernel-based operating system designed by Google. It is derived from the free software Chromium OS and uses the Google Chrome web browser and Aura Shell as its principal user interface.


Cyber Incident Management Arrangements


An American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San José, California. Cisco develops, manufactures and sells networking hardware, software, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products.


Chief Information Security Officer


An American multinational software company that provides server, application and desktop virtualisation, networking, software-as-a-service and cloud computing technologies.


The categorisation of systems, applications and data according to the expected impact if it was to be compromised.

Classified data

Data that would cause limited through to exceptionally grave damage to Australia’s national interests, the Australian Government generally or to an individual Commonwealth entity if compromised (i.e. data assessed as OFFICIAL: Sensitive, PROTECTED, SECRET or TOP SECRET).

Classified information

Information that requires increased security to protect its confidentiality (that is, information marked PROTECTED, SECRET or TOP SECRET).

Click farm

Groups of low-paid workers whose job is to click on links, surf around targeted websites, perhaps sign up for newsletters in order to exaggerate the popularity of the website. It is very hard for an automated filter to analyse this simulated traffic and detect that is it invalid as it has exactly the same profile as a legitimate visitor.

Click fraud

Using a compromised computer to click ads on a website without the user’s awareness, with the intention of generating revenue for the website or draining resources from the advertiser.


A form of false advertisement which uses links that are designed to attract attention and entice users to follow that link and read, view or listen to the linked content, with a defining characteristic of being deceptive, typically sensationalised or misleading.


A network of remote servers hosted on the internet and used to store, manage, and process data in place of local servers or personal computers.

Cloud computing

A service model that enables network access to a shared pool of computing resources such as data storage, servers, software applications and services.

Cloud service provider

A company that offers some component of cloud computing to other businesses or individuals, typically infrastructure-as-a-service (laaS), platform-as-a-service (PasS) or software-as-a-service (SaaS).


Content Management System


Commercial National Security Algorithm


Program instructions


Making an unsolicited visit or phone call to someone, often in an attempt to sell goods or services.


A web development suit used for developing scalable online applications. It has the ability to build websites as individual pieces that can be stored in its internal database, then reassembled to form web pages, e-newsletters etc.

Command and control (C2 or C&C)

A set of organisational and technical attributes and processes that employs human, physical and information resources to solve problems and accomplish missions.

Commercial cryptographic equipment

A subset of IT equipment which contains cryptographic components.

Common Criteria

An international standard for product evaluations.

Common Criteria Recognition Arrangement (CCRA)

An international agreement which facilitates the mutual recognition of Common Criteria evaluations by certificate-producing schemes.


The transfer of data and information from one location to another.

Communications security

The controls applied to protect telecommunications from unauthorised interception and exploitation, as well as ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications.


The disclosure of information to unauthorised persons, or a violation of the security policy of a system in which unauthorised intentional or unintentional disclosure, modification, destruction or loss of an object may have occurred.


A programmable electronic device designed to accept data, perform prescribed mathematical and logical operations at high speed, and display the results of these operations.

Computer network

Two or more interconnected devices that can exchange data.


A tube, duct or pipe used to protect cables.


The assurance that data is disclosed only to authorised entities.

Connection forwarding

The use of network address translation to allow a port on a node inside a network to be accessed from outside the network. Alternatively, using a Secure Shell server to forward a Transmission Control Protocol connection to an arbitrary port on the local host.

Consumer Electronics Show

An annual trade show organised by the Consumer Technology Association.

Consumer guide

Specific configuration and usage guidance for products evaluated through the ASD Cryptographic Evaluation Program or the High Assurance Evaluation Program.

Content filter

A filter that examines content to assess conformance against a security policy.

Content Security Policy

A computer security standard introduced to prevent cross-site scripting, clickjacking and other code injection attacks resulting from the execution of malicious content in a trusted web page.

Continuous monitoring plan

A document that describes the plan for the continuous monitoring and assurance in the effectiveness of controls for a system.

Control plane

The administrative interface that allows for the management and orchestration of a system’s infrastructure and applications.


A small text file that is transmitted by a website and stored in a user's web browser that is then used to identify the user and prepare customised web pages. A cookie can also be used to track a user’s activity while browsing the internet.


A form of intellectual property that protects the expression of ideas by giving their creators exclusive legal right in producing, publishing, selling or distributing their creations.

Corporate espionage

The improper or unlawful theft of trade secrets or other knowledge proprietary to a competitor for the purpose of achieving a competitive advantage in the marketplace.

Credential theft

A type of cybercrime that involves stealing a victim's proof of identity. Once credential theft has been successful, the attacker will have the same account privileges as the victim. Stealing credentials is the first stage in a credential-based attack.

Critical infrastructure

Physical facilities, supply chains, information technologies and communication networks which if destroyed, degraded or rendered unavailable for an extended period would significantly impact on the social or economic wellbeing of the nation, or affect a nation’s ability to conduct national defence and ensure national security.

Critical server

A server that provides critical network or security services. For example, a Microsoft Active Directory Domain Services domain controller or an authentication server.

Cross Domain Solution

A system capable of implementing comprehensive data flow security policies with a high level of trust between two or more differing security domains.


A type of digital currency which uses encryption techniques to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds, operating independently of a central bank. The cryptography is designed for security and anti-counterfeiting measures.

Cryptographic algorithm

An algorithm used to perform cryptographic functions such as encryption, integrity, authentication, digital signatures or key establishment.

Cryptographic equipment

A generic term for Commercial Grade Cryptographic Equipment and High Assurance Cryptographic Equipment.

Cryptographic hash

An algorithm (the hash function) which takes as input a string of any length (the message) and generates a fixed length string (the message digest or fingerprint) as output. The algorithm is designed to make it computationally infeasible to find any input which maps to a given digest, or to find two different messages that map to the same digest.

Cryptographic module

The set of hardware, software and firmware that implements approved cryptographic functions (including key generation) that are contained within the cryptographic boundary of the module.

Cryptographic protocol

An agreed standard for secure communication between two or more entities to provide confidentiality, integrity, authentication and non-repudiation of data.

Cryptographic software

Software designed to perform cryptographic functions.

Cryptographic system

A related set of hardware, software and supporting infrastructure used for cryptographic communication, processing or storage and the administrative framework in which it operates.


The practice and study of techniques for securing communications in which plaintext data is converted through a cipher into ciphertext, from which the original data cannot be recovered without the cryptographic key.


A process in which transactions for various forms of cryptocurrency are verified and added to the blockchain digital ledger.

Cyber attack

A deliberate act through cyberspace to manipulate, disrupt, deny, degrade or destroy computers or networks, or the information resident on them, with the effect of seriously compromising national security, stability or economic prosperity.

Note: there are multiple global definitions of what constitutes a cyber attack.

Cyber bullying

A form of bullying or harassment using electronic means. It is when someone bullies or harasses others on the internet and in other digital spaces, particularly on social media sites.

Cyber defence

Defensive activity designed to protect information and systems against offensive cyber operations.

Cyber espionage

Malicious activity designed to covertly collect information from a target's computer systems for intelligence purposes without causing damage to those systems. It can be conducted by state or non-state entities, and can also include theft for commercial advantage.

Cyber Incident Management Arrangements (CIMA)

The CIMA provides Australian governments with guidance on how they will collaborate in response to, and reduce the harm associated with, national cyber incidents.

Cyber operations

Offensive and defensive activities designed to achieve effects in or through cyberspace.

Cyber resilience

The ability to adapt to disruptions caused by cyber security incidents while maintaining continuous business operations. This includes the ability to detect, manage and recover from cyber security incidents.

Cyber safety

The safe and responsible use of information and communication technologies.

Cyber security

Measures used to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) systems, applications and data.

Cyber security event

An occurrence of a system, service or network state indicating a possible breach of security policy, failure of safeguards or a previously unknown situation that may be relevant to security.

Cyber security incident

An unwanted or unexpected cyber security event, or a series of such events, that has either compromised business operations or has a significant probability of compromising business operations.

Cyber Security Incident Responder

A cyber security expert with the skills to rapidly address cyber security incidents within an organisation. In the role of a first responder, they use a host of tools to find the root cause of a cyber security incident, limit the damage and significantly reduce the likelihood of it occurring again.

Cyber security incident response plan

A document that describes the plan for responding to cyber security incidents.

Cyber stalking

The use of the internet or other electronic means to stalk or harass an individual, group or organisation.

Cyber supply chain

The design, manufacture, delivery, deployment, support and decommissioning of applications, equipment and services that are utilised within an organisation's ICT environment.

Cyber threat

Any circumstance or event with the potential to harm systems, applications or data.

Cyber warfare

The use of computer technology to disrupt the activities of a state or organisation, especially the deliberate disruption, manipulation or destruction of information systems for strategic, political or military purposes.

Cyber weapon

A computer code that is used, or designed to be used, with the aim of causing physical, functional or mental harm to structures, systems or people.

Cyber weapon is a contentious term among the international policy and legal communities, and there is an absence of agreement surrounding its connotations and implications. Avoid using ‘cyber weapon’ and use more generic terms such as 'destructive tools' or 'exploits' when describing the capabilities used by cyber actors.


Crimes directed at computers, such as illegally modifying electronic data or seeking a ransom to unlock a computer affected by malicious software. It also includes crimes where computers facilitate an existing offence, such as online fraud or online child sex offences.


The environment formed by physical and non-physical components to store, modify, and exchange data using computer networks.


Cyber Security Challenge Australia